Level crossing ordering of semi-Markov processes and Markov chains
Ferreira, Fátima; Pacheco, António
Journal of Applied Probability, 42(4) (2005), 989-1002
We extend the definition of level-crossing ordering of stochastic processes, proposed by Irle and Gani (2001), to the case in which the times to exceed levels are compared using an arbitrary stochastic order, and work, in particular, with integral stochastic orders closed for convolution. Using a sample-path approach, we establish level-crossing ordering results for the case in which the slower of the processes involved in the comparison is skip-free to the right. These results are specially useful in simulating processes that are ordered in level crossing, and extend results of Irle and Gani (2001), Irle (2003), and Ferreira and Pacheco (2005) for skip-free-to-the-right discrete-time Markov chains, semi-Markov processes, and continuous-time Markov chains, respectively.